Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS)

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Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155. The original publication is available at
General information
Purpose The SHS is a 4-item scale of global subjective happiness. Two items ask respondents to characterize themselves using both absolute ratings and ratings relative to peers, whereas the other two items offer brief descriptions of happy and unhappy individuals and ask respondents the extent to which each characterization describes them
Target population Adult
Number of items 4
Administration format self-report
Additional formats
Alternate forms
Availability in other languages Bulgarian, Chinese, Croatian, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Filipino, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Persian, Peruvian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Scandinavian, Serbian, Sinhala, Slovak, Spanish (European), Spanish (Mexican), Swedish, Tamil, Thai, Turkish, Urdu.
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Related information on use of the measure

Permission is granted for all non-commercial use.

Non-exhaustive list of psychometric studies

Alquwez, N., Cruz, J. P., Alotaibi, N. S., & Alshammari, F. (2021). Validity and reliability of the subjective happiness scale Arabic version among Saudi working women. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 16(6), 835-842. doi:10.1016/j.jtumed.2021.05.010

Dama´sio, B. F., Zanon, C., & Koller, S. H. (2014). Validation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the subjective happiness scale. Universitas Psychologica, 13(1), 17-24. doi:10.11144/Javeriana.UPSY13-1.vppb

Feliu-Soler, A., de Diego-Adeliño, J., Luciano, J. V., Iraurgi, I., Alemany, C., Puigdemont, D., . . . Trujols, J. (2021). Unhappy while depressed: Examining the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the subjective happiness scale in a Spanish sample of patients with depressive disorders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(20) doi:10.3390/ijerph182010964

Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46(2), 137-155. doi:10.1023/A:1006824100041

Nan, H., Ni, M. Y., Lee, P. H., Tam, W. W. S., Lam, T. H., Leung, G. M., & McDowell, I. (2014). Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the subjective happiness scale: Evidence from the Hong Kong family cohort. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(4), 646-652. doi:10.1007/s12529-014-9389-3

Sousa, L. M. M., Marques-Vieira, C. M. A., Severino, S. S. P., Pozo-Rosado, J. L., & José, H. M. G. (2017). Validation of the subjective happiness scale in people with chronic kidney disease. [Validação da "subjective happiness scale" em pessoas com doença renal crónica] Enfermeria Global, 16(3), 49-59. doi:10.6018/eglobal.16.3.266571

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