World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF)

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The Whoqol Group. The World Health Organization quality of life assessment (WHOQOL): development and general psychometric properties. Soc Sci Med 1998;46(12):1569-85.
General information
Purpose The WHOQOL-BREF was developed by the WHOQOL Group with fifteen international field centers, simultaneously, in an attempt to develop a quality of life assessment that would be applicable cross-culturally. The WHOQOL-BREF is an abbreviated version of the WHOQOL-100.
Domain(s) Life Satisfaction
Quality of Life
Sense of Meaning
Target population Adult
Number of items 26
Administration format self-report
Additional formats
Alternate forms


Availability in other languages Afrikaans, Amharic, Arabic, Assamese, Bahasa, Bangla, Bulgarian, Cebuano Visayan, Chichewa, Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dari, Dutch (Belgian), Dutch (Netherlands), English (Australian), English (New Zealand), Estonian, Farsi, Filipino, Finnish, French (Belgian), French (France), German, Gichuka, Greek, Gujarati, Hausa, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Ilonggo, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Khmer, Kikuyu, Kiswahili, Korean, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luganda, Macedonian, Malayalam, Maltese, Marathi, Mongolian, Neplai, Norwegian, Odia, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Romanian, Russian, Shona, Sinhala, Slovak, Somali, Spanish (Argentinian), Spanish (Chilean), Spanish (Mexican), Spanish (Spain), Swedish, Tamil (Indian), Thai, Tibetan, Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Vietnamese, Yoruba
Fee for use
Related information on use of the measure

Information about and the measure can be found here:

Non-exhaustive list of psychometric studies

Anum, A., Adjorlolo, S., Akotia, C. S., & de-Graft Aikins, A. (2021). Validation of the multidimensional WHOQOL-OLD in Ghana: A study among population-based healthy adults in three ethnically different districts. Brain and Behavior, 11(8) doi:10.1002/brb3.2193

Brzoska, P. (2020). Assessment of quality of life in individuals with chronic headache. psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF. BMC Neurology, 20(1) doi:10.1186/s12883-020-01845-7

Duarte, S. B. R., Chaveiro, N., de Freitas, A. R., Barbosa, M. A., Camey, S., Fleck, M. P., . . . Rodríguez-Martín, D. (2021). Validation of the WHOQOL-bref instrument in Brazilian sign language (libras). Quality of Life Research, 30(1), 303-313. doi:10.1007/s11136-020-02611-5

Gholami, A., Araghi, M. T., Shamsabadi, F., Bayat, M., Dabirkhani, F., Moradpour, F., . . . Rajabi, A. (2021). Application of the world health organization quality of life instrument, short form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract. Epidemiology and Health, 38 doi:10.4178/epih.e2016005

Jikamo, B., Adefris, M., Azale, T., & Alemu, K. (2021). Cultural adaptation and validation of the Sidamic version of the world health organization quality-of-life-bref scale measuring the quality of life of women with severe preeclampsia in southern Ethiopia, 2020. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 19(1) doi:10.1186/s12955-021-01872-z

Kalfoss, M. H., Reidunsdatter, R. J., Klöckner, C. A., & Nilsen, M. (2021). Validation of the WHOQOL-bref: Psychometric properties and normative data for the Norwegian general population. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 19(1) doi:10.1186/s12955-020-01656-x

Additional information

The WHOQOL can be found here: