Positive and Negative Affect Scale – Child Form (PANAS-C)

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Laurent, J., Catanzaro, S. J., Joiner, T. E., Jr., Rudolph, K. D., Potter, K. I., Lambert, S., Osborne, L., & Gathright, T. (1999). A measure of positive and negative affect for children: Scale development and preliminary validation. Psychological Assessment, 11(3), 326–338. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.11.3.326
General information
Purpose The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule-Child Form (PANAS-C) is a 30-item, self-report questionnaire used to measure the respondent’s emotions during the past few weeks.
Domain(s) Life Satisfaction
Positive Affect
Target population Child
Number of items 30
Administration format self-report
Additional formats
Alternate forms

PANAS: designed to measure affect in adults, PANAS-SF: a short-form and more concise version of the original model., I-PANAS-SF: a short-form version designed for international use, whereby the words used have less room for ambiguity., PANAS-X: an expanded version of the original made up of 60 words. Despite containing 60 words, the assessment can still be undertaken in less than 10 minutes.

Availability in other languages
Fee for use
Related information on use of the measure

Information about and a copy of the PANAS-C can be found here.

Non-exhaustive list of psychometric studies

Ebesutani, C., Okamura, K., Higa-McMillan, C., & Chorpita, B. F. (2011). A psychometric analysis of the positive and negative affect schedule for children-parent version in a school sample. Psychological Assessment, 23(2), 406-416. doi:10.1037/a0022057

Stevanovic, D., Laurent, J., & Lakic, A. (2013). Measuring positive and negative affect and physiological hyperarousal among Serbian youth. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95(1), 107-117. doi:10.1080/00223891.2012.718301

Wróbel, M., Finogenow, M., Szymańska, P., & Laurent, J. (2019). Measuring positive and negative affect in a school-based sample: A polish version of the PANAS-C. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 41(4), 598-611. doi:10.1007/s10862-019-09720-7

Additional information

Adapted from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule