Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)

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General information
Purpose The PANAS consists of two 10-item scales that are respectively designed to measure positive and negative affect in adult and clinical samples.
Domain(s) Life Satisfaction
Positive Affect
Target population Adult
Number of items 20
Administration format self-report
Additional formats
Alternate forms

PANAS-C: designed to measure the mood of school-aged children., PANAS-SF: a short-form and more concise version of the original model., I-PANAS-SF: a short-form version designed for international use, whereby the words used have less room for ambiguity., PANAS-X: an expanded version of the original made up of 60 words. Despite containing 60 words, the assessment can still be undertaken in less than 10 minutes.

Availability in other languages Estonian, German, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, Italian, Chinese
Fee for use
Related information on use of the measure

A copy of the PANAS can be found here.

Non-exhaustive list of psychometric studies

Buz, J., Pérez-Arechaederra, D., Fernández-Pulido, R., & Urchaga, D. (2015). Factorial structure and measurement invariance of the PANAS in Spanish older adults. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 18, E3. doi:10.1017/sjp.2015.6

Flores-Kanter, P. E., Garrido, L. E., Moretti, L. S., & Medrano, L. A. (2021). A modern network approach to revisiting the positive and negative affective schedule (PANAS) construct validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 77(10), 2370-2404. doi:10.1002/jclp.23191

Heubeck, B. G., & Boulter, E. (2021). PANAS models of positive and negative affectivity for adolescent boys. Psychological Reports, 124(1), 240-247. doi:10.1177/0033294120905512

Medvedev, O. N., Roemer, A., Krägeloh, C. U., Sandham, M. H., & Siegert, R. J. (2021). Enhancing the precision of the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) using Rasch analysis. Current Psychology, doi:10.1007/s12144-021-01556-3

Merz, E. L., Malcarne, V. L., Roesch, S. C., Ko, C. M., Emerson, M., Roma, V. G., & Sadler, G. R. (2013). Psychometric properties of positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) original and short forms in an African American community sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(3), 942-949. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.08.011

Serafini, K., Malin-Mayor, B., Nich, C., Hunkele, K., & Carroll, K. M. (2016). Psychometric properties of the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) in a heterogeneous sample of substance users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 42(2), 203-212. doi:10.3109/00952990.2015.1133632

Villodas, F., Villodas, M. T., & Roesch, S. (2011). Examining the factor structure of the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) in a multiethnic sample of adolescents. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 44(4), 193-203. doi:10.1177/0748175611414721

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

Additional information